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Cetyl Myristoleate - Nature's Answer to Arthritis

In 1964, what I think is one of the most important nutritional discoveries of the 20th century, cetyl myristoleate, was made in Rockville, Maryland. And yet, I’d bet my next paycheck that very few Americans have ever heard of the discovery, or its discoverer, Harry W. Diehl, a researcher employed for forty years at the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolic, and Digestive Diseases. Mr. Diehl's many years of intensive research resulted in isolation of a nutrient that truly may be nature's answer to arthritis.

Discovery

The cetyl myristoleate story began in the 1950's when Harry W. Diehl's next-door neighbor, a carpenter, developed severe rheumatoid arthritis. Diehl (pronounced "deal") is a deeply religious man whose feelings overwhelmed him as his friend's condition worsened. He thought, "Here I am working at the National Institutes of Health, and I have never seen anything that was good for curing arthritis." He decided to establish a laboratory in his home and embark on a search for something to relieve the pain and disability of his neighbor and the millions of people who suffer from arthritis. Unfortunately, he was too late to help the neighbor, but Diehl's research did lead to the discovery of catyl myristoleate, which may some day be hailed as one of the significant nutritional discoveries of the twentieth century. As a researcher, Diehl knew that finding a cure for arthritis first meant inducing the disease experimentally in research animals. He started with mice, and quickly realized that he was unable to induce arthritis in them, Diehl said he tried every way he could to give arthritis to mice, but they just would not get it. Then, be contacted a researcher in California who wrote to him, "If you or anyone else can give mice arthritis, I want to know about it, because mice are 100% immune to arthritis." At that moment, Diehl's research instincts told him that what he wanted was already somewhere in those mice. It was a long, tedious job, working on his own in his spare time, but Diehl finally found the factor-cetyl myristolcate-that protected mice from arthritis. As Diehl said, "It didn’t come on a silver platter to me, but after years of chemical sleuthing and just old-fashioned chemical cooking, I found it!" On thin layer chromatography of methylene chloride extract from mice, Diehl noticed a mysterious compound, which was subsequently identified as cetyl myristoleate. As Diehl was to prove, cetyl myristoleate circulates in the blood of mice and makes them immune to arthritis. Cetyl myristoleate is now known to exist in sperm whale oil and in a small gland in the male beaver. At this time no other sources in nature are known to contain cetyl myristoleate. While the first amounts of cetyl myristoleate for experimentation were extracted from mice, Diehl quickly developed a method for making cetyl myristoleate in the lab by the esterification of myristoleic acid.

What is It?

Cetyl myristoleate is a fatty acid ester. I've had seven different chemistry classes in my training, but when I first heard that explanation, it didn’t mean much to me. Let's try this a different way. Fatty acids are the building blocks of oils or fats like amino acids are the constituents of proteins. To make an ester of a fatty acid, we need to add an alcohol molecule to it. So, to synthesize cetyl myristoleate, we add myristoleic acid (a fatty acid) to cetyl alcohol (a fatty alcohol), and add heat. Just like that, two rather common natural substances are turned into another natural substance, cetyl myristoleate.

Experimentation

To test his theory that mice are immune to arthritis because of cetyl myristoleate, Diehl began to experiment on laboratory rats. This research was reported in an article written in conjunction with one of his NIH colleagues in the journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In summary, what Diehl did was inject ten normal mice in the tail with Freund's Adjuvant (heat-killed desiccated Mycobacterium butyricum) to which rats and certain other rodents are susceptible (it produces arthritis). In a period of 10-20 days, no noticeable arthritis developed in the legs or paws. Mice in a second group were injected in the left hind paw. Again, after 10-20 days, no arthritis was detected. Then, a group of rats was injected with cetyl myristoleate, and 48 hours later, they were given the arthritis-inducing Freund's adjuvant A control group of rats was given Freund's adjuvant only. Both groups of rats were observed for a total of 58 days with respect to weight change, hind and front leg swelling, and general well being. All rats receiving only Freund's adjuvant developed severe swelling of the front and hind legs, lagged in weight gain, and were lethargic and morbid. Those receiving cetyl myristoleate before receiving Freund's adjuvant grew an average of 5.7 times as much as the control group and had little if any evidence of swelling or other symptoms of polyarthritis. Cetyl myristoleate gave virtually complete protection against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Furthermore, a 1: 1 mixture of cetyl myristoleate and a homologue, cetyl oleate, gave results not significantly different from administering cetyl myristoleate alone. Now, of course, I wasn’t there at the end of this experiment, but I’m sure Harry Diehl was one excited researcher, maybe even joyfully running around his lab. Next, he could run to the bank with earnings from his great discovery. Nothing was done with his discovery until he applied for and received a use patent for rheumatoid arthritis in 1977. I haven’t met Mr. Diehl, but there are a few things that I can tell by reading the patent and the article on his research published in the March 1994 issue of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. First, he is a fabulous researcher and a brilliant chemist. Second, he knows nothing about marketing. This discovery should have been shouted from every rooftop, broadcast on national radio and television, and shared in every possible way with the millions of people who suffer from the oftentimes crippling effects of arthritis! After using It, his arthritis was totally gone! It wasn’t until 1991, when he developed osteoarthritis in his own hands, knees, and feet that Diehl decided to try his discovery on himself. After using it, his arthritis was totally gone! At this point he came to my full realization of what he had. Shortly afterwards, he and a chemist friend submitted the animal research results to the journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the healthcare profession was made aware of it for the first time.  Since then many practitioners have started using it, including myself. We have bumbled our way through small clinical trials, trying to determine proper dosages, treatment time, indications, contraindications, and complementary nutrients. Now, cetyl myristoleate has been used in tens of thousands of patients with astounding results in the relief of arthritis. And, Mr. Diehi has recently (October, 1996) obtained another U.S. patent for cetyl myristoleate for the treatment of ostcoarthritis, which means that this product has been patented for both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

My Own Experiences

I had heard a lot of unbelievable stories before trying cetyl myristoleate, and I have heard quite a few since. In fact, there is one M.D. who wrote that it would be of benefit in treating anything from rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes to migraine headaches and schizophrenia. I'd also heard claims that arthritis sufferers had complete remission of symptoms after completing only one month of treatments. Well, needless to say, I was more than a bit skeptical. I've always been a little bit of a risk taker though, and since no one had noted any side effects, I decided to give it a try. If it proved to be only half as effective as what I had been hearing, I knew I was on to something fantastic. With the malpractice situation being what it is, and all the hungry attorneys out there, I decided to try the product on myself first I have suffered with arthritis since 1967 when I tore all AC supportive tissue in my shoulder during a motorcycle accident. I've bad three separate surgeries for chronic dislocation after the accident and many, many trips to an orthopod for steroid injections so I could keep working. Being a chiropractor, I was always a bit humbled when I had to go for those injections, but they did give me some temporary relief. If injected in the right spot, the stuff was magic. But, unfortunately, all of the symptoms would return after two or three weeks. I knew how dangerous continuing injections of steroids were, but it was all I had to keep me working. In 1988, I discovered the benefits of glucosamine sulfate. It wasn’t the magical pain reliever that prednisone was, but after ten to twelve weeks of daily use, I started to feel a fluid movement in my shoulder that I hadn't experienced in years. The pain and inflammation were almost gone. What a miracle I immediately started to share it with all of my arthritic patients. I shared it with my dad who is also a chiropractor and was actually considering retirement because of the arthritis in his hands, and within a few months, most of his joint pain was gone. I had a little difficulty, however, convincing my patients of the benefits of glucosamine sulfate because it took so long before any of the desired results were noticed and it is quite an expensive product. When patients stopped taking it, the symptoms would soon reappear. But I loved it, and in spite of the cost, took it every day. Last year, a friend of mine shared the story of cetyl myristoleate. I still had some residual shoulder pain-a dull ache that was there most of the time. I really wasn’t aware of it much except at night when I rolled over on my right side and the pain would increase only to eventually wake me up. This would happen five or six times each night I assumed this was a sign of getting older since all of my more mature patients told me that as I "matured" I wouldn't be able to sleep as soundly or as long. Well, they were wrong. After taking the cetyl myristoleate for only four days, I had my first good night's sleep in years! I remember waking up on my right shoulder early in the morning with no shoulder pain. I was afraid to say anything, though, fearing that I might jinx the whole thing. But this was enough for me to start sharing it with my patients. I have since recommended various forms of it to several hundred people with different types of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Based on this experience, I can say with all the conviction one could muster up that cetyl myristoleate may well be one of the major nutritional discoveries of the century.

How does it Work?

As wonderful as cetyl myristoleate is, I have found a few limitations and a few other products that enhance its effectiveness. But first let me describe the results that I have found in my clinic. I am a chiropractor with post-graduate training in acupuncture. My practice is primarily treating musculo-skeletal problems, so I don’t have much to say about treating conditions like Crohn's disease or schizophrenia. But I can tell you this; cetyl myristoleate, without any complementary nutrients, has proven to be at least 70% effective in treating the various forms of arthritis. The results are relatively fast. And, after completing a one-month program, only a handful of my patients required a full follow-up treatment, with a few more needing small, occasional maintenance doses. By using the topical lotion of cetyl myristoleate and adding a few complementary nutritional products like glucosamine sulfate and (MSM) methylsulfonylmethane, I believe the effectiveness can be increased by another 15% or so; I no longer had to sell my patients on sticking to many months of arthritis supplements and waiting for the results. There seems to be a consensus among me health care practitioners that I have communicated with as to its level of function. First, cetyl myristoleate works as a surfactant, which tends to lubricate tissues and thin the synovial fluids, making them less sticky. This allows the joint to move more freely. Secondly, it functions like the omega-3 fatty acids in regulating prostaglandin and leukotriene production to decrease inflammation. And last, it has an immuno-modulatmg effect on hyper-immune responses such as we find in rheumatoid arthritis and, as some believe, in non-infective prostatitis. Absorption of cetyl miyristoleats can be a little tricky, so I recommend each capsule of cetyl myristoleate be taken with lipase. Many arthritis victims have decreased or absent production of lipase, the enzyme that breaks down oils and fat into smaller, more absorbable particles, so it is good to add this enzyme to the treatment plan. Furthennoit, cholecystectomy patients or those with a history of liver or gall bladder disease or obstruction may also have trouble absorbing cetyl myristoleate without further help. For these patients, I recommend lecithin along with lipase to emulsify the oil.

Dr. Charles L. Cocnran, May 5.1997

Cetyl Myristoleate by Ken Babal.C.N. ,

Most likely, you or someone you know has arthritis. It’s the number one chronic illness in the US, affecting 37 million, or one in won Americans, young and old. Conventional medicine offers many medications to treat arthritis including corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Both types are capable or producing complications including kidney and liver damage and gastric irritation or ulceration. One side effect rarely mentioned is inhibition of cartilage repair and worsening of the condition. Occasionally, patients die from three drugs. When one considers risks versus benefits. It is questionable whether the prescription drugs are any better then common aspirin, because of the seriousness of drug side effects. It is always good news when a natural product shows promise in helping arthritis sufferers. One such product is cetyl myrisoleate, a new and unique, natural compound which is being haled as possibly one of the most significant nutritional break through of the 20th century.

What is Cetyl Myrtatoleate?

Cetyl myristoleste (CMO) is deserted as an ester of a fatty acid. Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats and oils just as amino acids are the components of protein. Science now recognizes the value of certain oils in reducing inflammation as well as blood cholesterol. When the fatty acid myristoleic acid (a natural substance) is combined with a long-chain alcohol molecule, cetyl alcohol, an ester of this fatty acid is created.  CMO appears to function in three different ways. One of its actions is that of a super lubricant, a kind of "WD-40 for the Joints”. Muscles and other tissues also benefit from the lubricating effect which also helps to make them more pliable. Second, CMO functions as an immune system modulator. This has been demonstrated by its effectiveness in autoimmune diseases (lupus, multiple sclerosis) as well as inflammatory conditions. Researchers are not sure how CMO performs. In this role, but a possible explanation is that it helps to stimulate certain immune components such as immunoglobulins. The third function of CMO is its anti-inflammatory effect. The beloved mechanism is regulation of proata-glandlns, short-acting local hormones involved in many processes of the body, including the inflammatory response.

Discovery

It is interesting how cetyl myristoleate was discovered. It began in 1862 when Harry W. Diehi, a researcher from the National Institutes of Heath, was attempting to chemical induce arthritis in laboratory mice. In order to test a drug. A toxin known to cause arthritis symptoms in most animals was infected into the mice. Curiously, the mice did not develop arthritis. In fact, it turns out that certain strains of mice are 100% immune to arthritis (Just as sharks rarely develop cancer). Diehi realized that some peculiar trait in the mice that protected them. It wasn't until two years later that a substance unique to mice was finally identified and isolated. It turned out to be the fatty acid compound now known as cetyl myristoleate. The next step was to see if CMO would prevent arthritis in other animals. Diehi proceeded to inject CMO into rats he knew could develop arthritis and then injected them with the chemical toxin. Not only did the rats remain arthritis-free, but they grew an average of 5.7 times as much as the control group that could not receive CMO. As amazing as this discovery was, not much was done until 1977 when Diehl obtained a use-patent for the purpose of preventing rheumatoid arthritis. He then sought the backing of pharmaceutical companies. Diehi, however, received little interest probably because CMO is a natural substance and cannot be granted a product patent A product patent is an incentive for drug companies since it enables them to control the marketing and price of a product. Finally in 1985, research was completed showing that CMO was safe for human consumption. About this time, Diehi began sharing the compound and taking it for his own osteoarthritis. Before long, friends, family and associates became customers and, in 1991, CMO appeared on the market as a dietary supplement.

Reported Results

Doctors report that patients are demonstrating striking improvements with CMO. Typical reports are decreased stiffness, increased range of motion visible reduction of swelling and restored dexterity in finger joints and elimination of pain. Often, patients are able to discontinue pain medication and return to activities they could not perform prior to treatment. Testimonials from users describe other health benefits such as a positive effect on emphysema, hepatitis, hypertension, diabetes, eczema, psoriasis, colds, allergies, low beck pain and headaches. In a 1996 multi-center, one-month clinical study Involving 431 patients with various forms of arthritis, significant improvement was found in 63.3% of those taking CMO. Established measurement criteria for arthritis was used in making the assessment In those taking CMO combined with glucosamine hydrochloride, sea-cucumber and hydrolyzed cartilage along with a topical preparation of CMO, an 87.3% improvement was achieved. In comparison, only 14.5% of the placebo group showed improvement. If a new prescription drug produced these results or was only 50% effective it would make headlines in a matter of days. Like anything else, CMO does not work 100% of the time. Best results are obtained when it is part of a comprehensive program, which includes other appropriate nutritional supplements and dietary measures such as restriction of animal fat, sugar, alcohol, citrus juices and caffeine. Since it is the job of the liver to manage fats in the body, liver detoxification can be highly beneficial.

Protocol

Because CMO has a relatively long life in the body, it does not have to be taken for long periods or in high doses. For most people, all that is needed is a one or two month course through results are often obtained within 2 weeks. Some individual may eventually need to take smaller "refresher" doses. As powerful as CMO is, its effect can be enhanced by including other supplements with proven benefits. Glucosamine sulfate (GS), a component of cartilage, has been shown in clinical studies to stimulate production of cartilage constituents and is now considered an effective long-term nutritional treatment for arthritis. Omega 3 fish or flaxseed oils have therapeutic benefits in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases; and vitamin E and other anti-oxidants help to halt the downward spiral of cartilage degradation.

Is CMO Safe?

Thousands of people have taken CMO and there are no known adverse side effects. Occasionally, people experience burping as they sometimes do with fish oils. Until further studies can be done, pregnant or lactating women should not take CMO. People with asthma or a history of severs allergic reactions should only take CMO under medical supervision.

Facts about Cetyl Myristoleate and Arthritis

(The main ingredient in Rich’s Three-In One Formula)

Harry W. Diehi, a physical science technician who resides in Rockville, Maryland, retired after 40 years of service at the National Institutes of Health. Diehl practiced in the Laboratory of Chemistry at the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland, where he developed over 500 new compounds, several of which were patented by the U.S. Patent Office. An award winning researcher, Diehl was recognized in 1958 for developing a new method of preparing 2-deoxy-d-ribose, a sugar found in deoxyribonucleic add.  This sugar is of vital importance to much basic research, and was used by Jonas Salk, M.D. as a culture medium to grow the Salk polio vaccine virus. Diehi's process was published in the scholarly journal, Biochemical Preparations, which described it as the "world's best method for making 2 deoxy-d-ribose". The last compound he developed before retiring is a crystalline compound called celloblonic lactone, which is an excellent plant cell inhibitor. Since his retirement, Diehl has dedicated his research to finding a cure for arthritis. He has studied the disease for 60 years, first at NIH, and than at this home lab, ultimately discovering the compound cetyl myristoleate. A report on cetyl myristoleate was published in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, March 1994. Discovery of cetyl myristoleate stemmed from Diehi's observation that Swiss albino mice are immune to all forms of arthritis. Diehl successfully isolated the substance in the mice, cetyl myristoleate, that makes them Immune. The natural occurring compound is also found in sperm whale heads and beaver tails as well as mice. Cetyl myristoleate is made synthetically by chemically combining cetyl alcohol, which is isolated from the sperm whale's head in a pure form with myristolic acid, which is isolated from cow butter. In his research, Diehl injected rats with an arthritis-inducing material, which caused severe manifestation of arthritis in their legs and tails. After Diehl injected them with cetyl myristoleate, the rats were cured. The swelling left the joints and their crippled limbs began to straighten. As for dosage, Diehl said, "I have found in my research that people respond to various amounts. I took two capsules four years ago at the onset of severe pain. I was cured of arthritis in my heel, knees, and hands. Also, I have no more headaches or bronchitis. Most people start with four capsules (taken between meals). After a period of four to six seeks, three more capsules are taken. This can vary depending on a person's condition and weight". One example of some of the many letters and phone calls Diehl receives is one from the wife of Maryland doctor who wrote that she had been suffering from arthritis in her hands along with osteoporosis in her back and neck. She had been treated by a specialist without any relief from the terrible pain. She took four capsules, which she said healed her hands; two more capsules relieved her neck pain; and, after three more capsules, she said her back was healed. She is very happy to be free of her painful and crippling disease. She and many others have also reported that their high blood pressure dropped to normal since taking cetyl myristoleate.

Cetyl Myristoleate - A Unique Natural Compound Valuable in Arthritis Conditions

Arthritis is a disease of epidemic proportions, but it has been around fir so many centuries that it is considered by most people as a part of growing old or a consequence of physical injury. Arthritis is in fact a far more complex disease than is generally known. For instance, Dorland's Medical Dictionary describes 27 different types of arthritis, and that does not include such diverse conditions as systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, fibromyalgia, and numerous other conditions, which same authorities consider to be types of arthritis. One authority states that there an approximately 100 causes of arthritis. Arthritis is thought to effect more than 50 million Americans, and is generally accepted to be the leading cause of movement limitation and disability. It deserves and receives a great deal of research and medical attention. There are hundreds of drugs, procedures, and medical aids and devices directed at coping with the many manifestations of me disease. Given this degree of complexity, certainly no one agent alone could ever be expected to manage or cure 'arthritis' in its entirety. New agents take their place in the spectrum and makes a contribution. Now there is a relatively new discovery of a natural substance, cetyl myristoleate, which shows promise of making a great contribution in non-infective types of arthritis.

Cetyl Myristolettt

Cetyl myristoleate was discovered and isolated by one person, working alone, on a quest to find a cure for arthritis. Harry W. Diehl, while employed by the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, specialized in sugar chemistry. He used his chemical knowledge and research instincts to great advantage, identifying and characterizing over 500 compounds, several of which were patented by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). His most significant discovery before cetyl myristoleate was a method of synthesizing 2-deoxydaxtrorib6sc, a sugar used in the preparation of oral polo vaccine by Dr. Jonas Salk. Diehl's interest in discovering a way to help victims of arthritis began over 40 years ago when his friend and next door neighbor, a carpenter, developed severe rheumatoid arthritis. His condition deteriorated over time until he became disabled. The neighbor had a family to support, but his arthritis made that impossible. Diehl is a deeply religious man whose feelings overwhelmed him as his friend’s condition worsened. Harry thought, "Here I am working at the National Institutes of Health, and I have never seen anything that was good for curing arthritis." He decided to establish a laboratory in his home and embark on a search for something to relieve me pain and disability of his neighbor and the million of people who suffer from arthritis. Unfortunately, he was too late to help the neighbor, but Diehl's research did lead to the discovery of cetyl myristoleate, which may someday be hailed as one of the significant nutritional discoveries of me 20th century. As a researcher, Diehl knew that finding a cure to arthritis first meant inducing the disease experimentally in a research animal.   He started with mice, and quickly realized that he was unable to induce arthritis in them. Diehl said he tried every way he could to give those mice arthritis, but they just would not get it. Then, he contacted a researcher in California who wrote to him, "if you or anyone else can give mice arthritis, I want to know about it, because mice are 100% immune to arthritis." At that moment, Diehl's research instincts told him that what he wanted was already somewhere in those mice. It was a long, tedious Job, working on his own in his spare time, but Diehl finally found the factor - cetyl myristoleate - that protected mice from arthritis. As Diehl said, ‘It didn't come on a silver platter to me, but after years of chemical sleuthing and just old fashioned chemical cooking, I found it!’ On thin layer chromatography of methylene chloride extract from macerated mice, Diehl noticed a mysterious compound, which was subsequently identified as cetyl myristoleate. As Diehl was to prove, cetyl myristoleate circulates in the blood of mice and makes them immune to arthritis. Cetyl myristoleate is now known to exist in sperm whale oil and in a small gland in the male beaver. At this time no other sources in nature are known to contain cetyl myristoleate. While the first amounts of cetyl myristoleate for experimentation were extracted from mice, Diehl quickly developed a method for making cetyl myristoleate in the lab by the esterification of myristoleic acid.

Chemistry

Cetyl myristoleate, an oil, is the hexadecyl ester of the unsaturated fatty acid cis-9-tetraidocenoic acid. The common name for the acid is myristoleic acid. Myristoleic add is found commonly in fish oils, whale oils, dairy butter, and kambo butter. The chemical formula for cetyl myristoleate is (Z)- ROCO(CH2)CH-CH(CH2)3CH3. Cetyl myristoleats was unrecorded in chemical literature until Diehl's discovery was reported.   The current Merck Index of Chemicals does not list cetyl myristoleate. A search of Chemical  Abstracts Lists Diehl's method of extracting cetyl myristoleate from mice but contains no reference to cetyl myristoleate prior to his 1977 patent.

Experimentation

To test his theory that mice are immune to arthritis because of cetyl myristoleate, Diehl began to experiment on laboratory rats. This research was reported in an article written in conjunction with one of his colleagues at NIH in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences* In summary, this paper reports that ten normal mice were injected in the tail with Freund's Adjuvant (heat-killed desiccated Mycobacterium butyricum) to which rats and certain other rodents are susceptible. In a period of 10-20 days, no noticeable swelling developed in the legs or paws. Mice in a second group were injected in the left hind paw. Again, after 10-20 days, no swelling was detected as determined by comparison of the measurements of paws at the time of injection. Then, a group of rats was injected with cetyl myristoleate, and 48 hours later, they were given the arthritis inducing Freund's adjuvant A control group of rats was given Freund's adjuvant only. Both groups of rats were observed for a total of 58 days with respect to weight change, hind and front leg swelling, and general well being. All rats receiving only Freund's adjuvant developed severe swelling of the front and hind legs, lagged in weight gain, and were lethargic and morbid. Those receiving cetyl myristoleate before receiving Freund's adjuvant grew an average of 5.7 times as much as the control group and had little if any evidence of swelling or other symptoms of polyarthritis. The authors concluded that it was apparent that cetyi myristoleate gave virtually complete protection against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Furthermore, a 1 : 1 mixture of cetyl myristoleate and a homologue, cetyl oleate, gave results not significantly different from administering cetyl myristoleate alone. Diehl patented his discovery in 1977, receiving a use patent for rheumatoid arthritis. He then sought pharmaceutical companies to conduct human trials with cetyi myristoleate, but none were interested in his discovery. Perhaps the lack of interest was because cetyl myristoleate was a natural substance and could not be granted a product patent, or maybe because drug companies know they will have to run through 25,000 to 35,000 substances before they find one that makes it to market. Diehl had made a major nutritional discovery, and no one was interested! Being a scientist, not a marketing expert, Diehl let his discovery lay dormant for about 15 years. As Diehl got older, he began to experience some osteoarthritis in his hands, his knees, and his heels. His family physician tried the usual regimen of cortisone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs without much effect on the course of the disease. Finally his physician told Harry be could not have any more cortisone. 'So,' Diehl said, 'I thought about my discovery, and I decided to make a batch and use it on myself." He did, and successfully cured himself of his osteoarthritis. Many of his family members and friends became aware of the relief Diehl got from his discovery, and they wanted to try it too. Time after time, people with both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis received astounding relief with cetyl myristoleate. Before long, family members and friends grew into customers, and cetyl myristoleate appeared on the market as a dietary supplement.

Clinical Observation and Usage

In common with many other natural substances and drugs, the exact mechanism of cetyl myristoleate's physiologic activity is unclear. As a fatty acid ester, it appears to have the same characteristics as the essential fatty acids, linolenic and alpha linolenic adds, except stronger and longer lasting. These fatty adds are referred to as "essential fatty adds* because the human body cannot make them and we must ingest them in our diets. These EFA's truly are essential to normal cell structure and body function and function as components of nerve cells, cell membranes, and hormone-like substances known as prostaglandins.  Many of the beneficial effects of a diet rich in plant foods is a result of the low levels of saturated fat and the relatively higher levels of EFA's. While a diet high in saturated fat has been linked to many chronic diseases, a diet low in saturated fat but high in EFA's prevents these very same diseases.7 The use of EFA's over an extended period of time has been shown to decrease the pain, inflammation, and limitation of motion of arthritis. The difference between the activity of EFA's and cetyl myristoleate is that the quantity required and the period of time over which EFA's are taken are markedly longer. Cetyl myristoleate is taken in a one-month course of about 13 grams, while EFA's must be taken over extended periods, sometimes many years, and intake varies widely from hundreds to thousands of grams. Cetyl myristoleate seems to have properties in common with EFA's, but it acts faster and lasts longer. Because EFA's are necessary fat normal functioning of all tissue, it is not surprising that the list of symptoms of EFA deficiency is a long one. In Chrome inflammatory processes, the supply of EFA's is depleted. Cetyl myristoleate appears to have the ability to correct the imbalance created by chronic inflammation. Like EFA's maybe cetyl myristoleate turns off the fires of chronic inflammation by serving as a mediator of prostaglandin formation and metabolism. Venous blood from the gastrointestinal tract is carried to me liver via the portal vein.  With the exception of intestinal chylomicrons that enter the lymphatics, all absorbed products pass initially through the liver, and in most instances are extracted or modified before passage into systemic circulation. Since all fatty acids enter systemic circulation through the liver, an oil like cetyl myristoleate would begin its systemic circulation from the liver also. It is speculated that cetyi tnyristoleate stimulates me production of immunoglobulins and series 1 and 3 Prostaglandins, which could be one explanation for why its such potent effect in auto-immune and inflammatory condition.

Cases: Here art some cases involving the use of cetyl myristoleate from the author's practice.

Leona - She is a 64 year old mother of five who has been developing degenerative changes in her fingers over the last 15 years. She plays the piano frequently and had to reduce the amount of playing time as a result of tile arthritis pain in her fingers. ANA titers have been mildly elevated over the years and rheumatoid disease has been diagnosed in several of her ancestors and one sibling. Leona's other medical problems are mild hypertension and chronic sacro-lumbar pain which appears to be attributable both to sciatic damage sustained in a water sliding accident 24 years ago and Shunerman's disease as teenager. Demonstrating both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis changes in her fingers, she has a mild nodular deformity at the terminal joints of the 3rd and 4th fingers on the left hand and fusiform swelling in the medial and distal joints of most of her fingers. Her thumbs were intermittently painful and swollen. She first took cetyl myristoleate in mid-January, 1997. There is now increased range of motion in all of the finger joints and visible reduction of the rheumatoid-like swelling. The nodular deformities have not changed noticeably. Her back problems demonstrated no improvement. Her sedimentation rate has run from 15 to 35, and is currently 16, with her ANA 1:360. Leona is now able to play the piano all she wants to without pain or swelling of her fingers.

Joyce - She is a 42 year old mother of three and a court reporter in good general health, suffering only from moderate hay-fever in the spring, Recently Joyce developed a generalized stiffness and soreness the her fingers, which was worse on her right hand. The condition became so bad over a couple of weeks that she began making numerous mistakes in her court reporting and her speed was significantly reduced. She was diagnosed with tenosynovitis. Joyce shows no deformities of her hands associated with arthritis. She began a course of cetyl myristoleate during the last week of February and finished the last week of March 1997. She reports complete restoration other dexterity with return of her normal accuracy and speed, along with elimination of the associated pain.

Bob - He is a 67 year-old retired politician who suffered lumbar and pelvic fractures in WWII when his jeep struck a land mine. Over the years, these injuries produced increasing pain, which seriously affected routine daily activities like getting out of bed in the morning and his ability to play golf. X-rays demonstrate degenerative arthritic changes in the lumbar articulations and the right sacroiliac joint. At 6 feet tall and 185 pounds, he is otherwise in good health.   Bob has been using anti-inflammatory drugs for over 20 years, including voltaren, ibuprofen, tyienol, and aspirin. He took a one-half course of 7.6 grams of cetyl myristoleate in September 1996. He experienced moderately severe inflammation (breakthrough pain) on day two which lasted for three days. On the 4th day, the pain began to subside and was completely gone by the 5th day. He has been virtually pain-free since and is very happy with me increased comfort with which be can begin each day. He can now comfortably walk the golf course whereas before he was limited to a golf cart. In February 1997, he perceived a slight return of his low bade pain and decided to take another one-half course. He experienced no breakthrough pain this time and is currently pain-free. Ha has not taken any other medication for his back pain since taking cetyl myristoleate initially,

Virginia - She is an 85 year-old lady who still works part-time at the family owned business and cares for her husband who has cancer. Virginia was diagnosed ten years ago with diabetes, and elevated triglycerides and cholesterol. Overweight all her life, she is now stable at 265 pounds. She suffers from long-standing osteoarthritis in her knees and ankles, for which she was placed on cetyl myristoleate. No other agents have been used by her for arthritis except for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, both OTC and prescription. After about 7.6 grams of cetyl myristoleate, she was able to walk without limping or experiencing significant pain. About three months following the initial course, some pain returned, but she has retained what she estimates to be 50% improvement. She also has gallstones and a recurrent problem with gout, both of which have been symptom-less since her cetyl myristoleate course. She evidently did not receive enough cetyl myristoleate for her body weight and will be given another course of 13.25 gram.

Rose - Rose is a 46 year old mother of four who works as a legal secretary. She was diagnosed five years ago as having an atypical form of multiple sclerosis. She had MRI exams of the skull and spinal cord, which demonstrated several areas of non-specific degenerative changes in the brain with several "bright spots' in the cervical spinal cord. She had periodic visual aberrations as well as constant fatigue and fibromyalgia-like pains focused in her trapezium (bilaterally), and in her upper arms and legs below the knees. She also complained of burning sensations in her hands and feet. All of the symptoms worsened with elevated stress. There was no sign of pernicious anemia or diabetes. She was receiving chiropractic therapy. Rose was started on numerous naturopathic therapies in March 1996 without significant benefit over an eight-month period. In November 1996, she started on cetyl myristoleate and indicated that she felt more fatigued for the first three days but that the pain in her upper back and extremities was completely gone. She further reported that the tingling burning sensation in her feet and hands was also gone. Rose felt this was the most striking aspect of the treatment as those areas were the ones most constantly affected. This improvement lasted until she had to travel out of state to tend to her mother who was diagnosed with a rapidly advancing malignancy. Over the next three weeks, her symptoms began to reappear. After the death of her mother, she returned home in as bad shape as before first along cetyl myristoleate. She decided that she wanted to take another half course of cetyl myristoieate, which completely duplicated the relief from the initial dosage with me exception that she feels slightly less relief from her tendencies to fatigue rim she did after the first course. Rose will be taking mother half course to see if she can improve her stamina.

J.P. • He is a 60 year old male who has been a farmer his entire life. Diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis 15 years ago, he has been on various pharmicologic protocols during that time. The most recent includes Plaquenil, methotrexate, and prednisone, with daily non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug dosing. J.P. has fusiform swelling involving most of the joints of his fingers and moderate ulnar deviation, of both hands.  He suffered severe pain most of the time, which limited the labor he could perform.  He began cetyl myristoleate during the last week of February 1997, at which time he terminated his methotrexate and Plaquenil (not recommended except in consultation with a qualified physician). He has also reduced his prednisone from 15 milligrams per day to 5 mg, but he still maintains his NSAID dosing on a daily basis. J.P. experienced a mild increase in pain during the first four day of taking cetyl myristoleate, but since then be has been pain free and the swelling in his hands is reducing. J.P. will be monitored over the next month to determine his stability, with checking of his serum parameters by an MD. If he continues to remain symptom-free, his steroid and NSADD therapies will be terminated. J.P, does not smoke, eat chocolate, nor drink alcohol or caffeinated beverages. He was advised at the onset of his cetyl myristoleate dosage to avoid sugar. He is also taking Glucosaplex (a mix of glucosamines) and Lyprinol (fatty acid extract of green lipped mussel) as an additional natural anti-inflammatory agent.

Optimizing the Effects of Cetyl Myristoieate

Since the days of Paracelsus, physicians have been combining therapeutic agents for synergistic effects, or to achieve potentiation of several compounds. As powerful a nutrient as it is the effects of cetyl myristoleate can be helped by combining it with other natural substances. Two or three grams daily of omega-3 fish oil or two tablespoonfuls of flaxseed oil during the month-long course of cetyl myristoleate can help its effects. This should be accompanied by 300-500 mg of Vitamin E daily. A minimum of 1,500 mg of glucosamine sulfate should be taken daily for at least three months to assist in rebuilding cartilage damaged by degenerative arthritis. In severe cases, three to six grams of glucosamine daily for one month and reduced to 1,500 mg daily for three months has been found to be very effective. Afterwards, a daily maintenance of 500 mg of glucosamine should be used for healthy cartilage. If stomach upset occurs, glucosainine should be taken with meals. Clinical experience has shown that glucosamine sulfate is far superior when compared to cartilage extracts, such as sea cucumber, hydrolyzed bovine cartilage, and shark cartilage. This is due to the increased absorption and utilization of glucosamine sulfate compared to these sources of chron-droitin sulfates, which are very large molecules and difficult to digest. Animal and human studies have shown up to 98% absorption of glucosamine, compared to only 8% absorption of chrondroitin sulfate. One of the reasons that glucosamine sulfate is more effective in rebuilding cartilage when compared to other sources of glucosamine. Including the N-acetyl and hydrochloride forms is that it provides bio-available dietary sulfur. Sulfur helps provide the protein links necessary for cartilage matrix repair. Another source of sulfur is methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), which has been used historically to treat a wide variety of conditions including allergies, emphysema, arthritis, gastrointestinal upset, and some vascular conditions. MSM is a metabolite of dimethylsulfexide (DMSO) and provides many similar good effects. MSM is found in most natural unprocessed foods. Because of its volatility, MSM is lost when fresh food is cooked, processed, or stored. The richest source of MSM is mother’s milk; consequently, very few nursing infants are deficient in dietary sulfur. As with any oil, cetyl myristoleate requires lipase to be digested. Lipases are pancreatic enzymes that play a key role in the digestion of fats and fat soluble vitamins. If lipase is absent or deficient, cetyl myristoieate will be poorly absorbed, if at all. As many arthritis patients are of the age when lipase production decreases, approximately 100 mg of lipase enzyme should be taken with each cetyl myristoleate capsule.  In addition to taking lipase, cholecystectomy patients will need lecithin or ox bile extract to assure absorption. Diet can play a role in optimizing the benefits of cetyl myristoleate. Carbonated cola beverages and citrus juices may block the absorption of cetyl myristoieate and should be avoided on the days cetyl myristoleate is taken. Sugar intake should be minimized when taking cetyl myristoleate, and adding refined sugar to liquids like coffee and tea should be avoided altogether. Alcohol and caffeine intake should be very limited or eliminated altogether while combating arthritis and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Reported Results

Both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis sufferers report striking improvement with cetyl myristoleate. In numerous  private correspondence describes decreased stiffness and pain, and increased flexibility and range of motion with catyl myristoleate. Swelling and redness is reduced in rheumatoid arthritis.   Writers describe other health benefits, including positive effect of cetyl myristoleate on emphysema, hepatitis, hypertension, diabetes, eczema, psoriasis, colds, allergies, low back pain, and headaches. These reported improvtcients in general health status are not surprising since each of these condition could be associated with deficiency in me balance of EFA's. Like everything else, cetyl myriatoleate does not work 100% of the time. Failure to work can be associated with failure to follow the dietary recommendations; failure to use lipase in conjunction with each capsule of cetyl myristoleate; failure to take a sufficient amount of cetyl myristoleate; failure of the liver to uptake and respond to the cetyl myristoleate; and, misdiagnosis in which the condition is not really an arthritis-type condition.

Dosage

Cetyl myristoleate is taken in a one month course. A total dose of 12 to 15 grams appears to be indicated. This is usually enough for most people, but for osteoarthritis sufferers, the dose appears to be related to the number of sites in which cartilage has worn away.  For example, a patient with osteoarthritis of the knees could expect 10 to 15 grams to be sufficient in most cases, while a patient with osteoarthritis of 5 or 6 spinal discs, both hips, and both knees may require an additional 5 to 10 grams, or even a fall second course. Some of the patients treated by the author would likely have benefited even more from their cetyl myristoleate usage with the larger doses now recommended.

Contraindications and Toxicity

With the tens of thousands of people who have taken cetyl myristoleate there have been no confirmed reports of adverse side effects. In common with fish oils, it may produce some mild burping in some people, which passes within an hour.  There have been no reported interactions with other medications or natural substances, and other substances (except those mentioned above as diet considerations) do not interfere with cetyl myristoleate. While teratogenicity of cetyl myristoleate is probably the same as for EFA's, as a safety matter cetyl myristoleate should not he used by pregnant or lactating women until studies of cetyl myristoleate's effects on fetuses and infants have been done. As with any substance being added to the diet of anyone with asthma or a history of severe allergic reactions, caution is advised and cetyl myristoleate should be used in these cases under the direct supervision of a health care professional. Toxicity studies have been performed on cetyl myristoleate and the lack of toxicity is evident test results deemed catyl myristoleate a non-toxic material in accordance with Federal regulations. Mega-doses were given to test animals with no ill effects. Necropsy of test animals showed no ill effects in their internal organs." The LD50 of cetyl myristoleate was not established, but it can be presumed to far exceed 10 grams per kilogram of body weight. A farmer from Virginia wrote last winter saying that he could no longer climb up on his tractor due to severe arthritis in his knees, but after taking cetyl myristoleate he was back to tending his fields in the spring. A doctor's wife in Kentucky reported that she has had severe shoulder pain for several years. Her husband gave her cortisone shots on three separate occasions, but her relief from pain only lasted about two months. She wrote for Three in one capsules to take as a booster to make sure the arthritis is wiped out. She is thrilled to be able to do simple chores around the house without pain. With the proper dosage of cetyl myristoleate before joints become crippled, deformed and cartilage is dried out, one can expect nearly a complete recovery. This information is for educational purposes only. It is not medical advice and is not intended to replace the advice or attention of health-care professionals. Consult your physician before beginning or making changes in your diet, supplements or exercise program, for diagnosis and treatment of Illness and Injuries, and for advice regarding medications.